Dienstag, 27. Mai 2014

Dassault Mirage F-1C FAF Doha/Qatar 1991 (Gulf War) - Academy Minicraft 1/144

The Dassault Mirage F1 is a French air-superiority fighter and attack aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation as a successor of the Mirage III family. The Mirage F1 entered service in the French Air Force (Armée de l'Air) in 1974. Powered by a single SNECMA Atar turbojet providing about 7 tonnes-force (69 kN; 15,000 lbf) of thrust, the F1 has been used as a light multipurpose fighter and has been exported to about a dozen nations. More than 720 F1s have been produced.



French Air Force Mirage F1s were first deployed operationally in 1984 during Operation Manta, the French intervention in Chad, to counter growing Libyan encroachment. Four Mirage F1C-200s provided air cover for a force of four Jaguars, and took part in skirmishes against the pro-Libyan GUNT rebels.
In 1986, French Mirage F1s returned to Chad, as part of Operation Epervier, with four F1C-200s providing fighter cover for a strike package of eight Jaguars during the air raid against the Libyan airbase at Ouadi Doum, on 16 February. Two F1CRs also flew pre and post-strike reconnaissance missions.
In response the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, France made two deployments of Mirage F1s to the Gulf, with 12 Mirage F1Cs being deployed to Doha in Qatar in October 1991 to boost air defences, while four Mirage F1CRs of ER 33 deployed to Saudi Arabia as part of Operation Daguet in September 1991. To avoid the risk of being mistaken for Iraqi Mirage F1s, the French F1CRs were grounded during the first few days of the Allied air attacks, flying their first combat mission on 26 January 1991. They were used as fighter bombers, using their more capable navigation systems to lead formations of French Jaguar fighter bombers, as well as to fly reconnaissance missions, flying 114 sorties by the end of hostilities. Following the end of the Gulf war, France deployed Mirage F1CRs to Turkey as part of Operation Provide Comfort to protect Kurds from Iraqi aggression.
In November 2004 and in response to an Ivorian air attack on French peacekeepers three Mirage F.1 jets attack Yamoussoukro airport and destroy two Su-25 aircraft and three attack helicopters.
In October 2007, three Mirage 2000s and three Mirage F1s were deployed at Kandahar Air Force Base, where they flew close air support and tactical reconnaissance missions in support of international forces in Southern Afghanistan.
The last French unit to still be equipped with the Mirage F1, is the Escadron de Reconnaissance 2/33 Savoie, home-based at Mont-de-Marsan, flying the latest version of the F1CR. The unit's primary mission is tactical reconnaissance, with a secondary mission of ground-attack. Because of the unique missions of the 2/33, their unofficial motto among the pilots has become, "Find; Identify; and Photograph or Destroy." In accordance, with a bilateral defense agreement between France and Chad, two, 2/33 F1CRs, along with 3 pilots, a photo interpreter, an intelligence officer and ground crews are always deployed to N'Djamena, Chad. The two 2/33 F1CRs operate with three Mirage 2000Ds, also based on rotation from France to Chad. In March 2011, 2/33 Mirage F1CRs were deployed to Solenzara Air Base, Corsica and conducted reconnaissance missions over Libya (also a Mirage F1 operator) as part of Opération Harmattan. In 2013 2/33 F1CRs also participated in Operation Serval in Mali. On 10 January, launching from their base in N'Djamena in Chad, the first French air intervention mission against Islamist rebels in Mali, was undertaken by F1CRs and Mirage 2000Ds, supported by a French Air Force C-135K tanker. The 2/33 F1CRs provided valuable photo information for strike aircraft flying the next day from France. Later on 16 January, two 2/33 F1CRs, were deployed from Chad to Bamako, Mali. Both aircraft were fitted with extra long range 2,200 liter ventral tanks; and when operating over Mali also carried two 250 kg unguided bombs, plus their one internal 30mm cannon, in case they were called on for close air support missions.
It is planned that sometimes in the future 2/33s elderly F1CRs will be replaced by Rafales fitted with an advance reconnaissance pod. The Rafale's range, maneuverability and combat load is far superior to the F1CR that it replaces—e.g. after the Rafale's pod has taken photos they can almost instantly be transmitted back to its base or where the photos are needed that has the down link equipment.
 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




















Sonntag, 25. Mai 2014

Panavia MRCA Tornado GR.Mk.I "MiG Eater" - Revell 1/144

The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing combat aircraft, which was jointly developed and manufactured by Italy, the United Kingdom, and West Germany. There are three primary Tornado variants; the Tornado IDS (interdictor/strike) fighter-bomber, the suppression of enemy air defences Tornado ECR (electronic combat/reconnaissance) and the Tornado ADV (air defence variant) interceptor aircraft.
The Tornado was developed and built by Panavia Aircraft GmbH, a tri-national consortium consisting of British Aerospace (previously British Aircraft Corporation), MBB of West Germany, and Aeritalia of Italy. It first flew on 14 August 1974 and was introduced into service in 1979–1980. Due to its multirole nature, it was able to replace several different fleets of aircraft in the adopting air forces. The Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF) became the only export operator of the Tornado in addition to the three original partner nations. A tri-nation training and evaluation unit operating from RAF Cottesmore, the Tri-National Tornado Training Establishment, maintained a level of international cooperation beyond the production stage.
The Tornado was used by the Royal Air Force (RAF), Italian Air Force and RSAF during the 1991 Gulf War, in which the Tornado conducted many low-altitude penetrating strike missions. The Tornados of various operators were also used in conflicts in the former Yugoslavia during the Bosnian War and Kosovo War, the Iraq War, Libya during the Libyan civil war, as well as smaller roles in Afghanistan and Yemen. Including all variants, a total of 992 aircraft were built.


In 1991, the Tornado had its combat debut in the Gulf War, the British contribution to which being designated as Operation Granby. Nearly 60 GR1s were deployed by the United Kingdom to air bases at Muharraq in Bahrain and Tabuk and Dhahran in Saudi Arabia. Several Tornado ADVs were deployed to provide air cover, the threat of their long range missiles being a significant deterrent to Iraqi pilots, who would deliberately avoid combat when approached.
Early on in the conflict, the GR1s targeted military airfields across Iraq, deploying a mixture of 450 kg (1,000 lb) unguided bombs in loft-bombing attacks and specialised JP233 runway denial weapons. Six RAF Tornados were lost in the conflict, four were lost while delivering unguided bombs, one was lost after delivering JP233, and one trying to deliver laser-guided bombs. On 17 January 1991, the first Tornado to be lost was shot down by an Iraqi SA-16 missile following a failed low-level bombing run. On 19 January, another RAF Tornado was shot down during an intensive raid on Tallil Air Base. The impact of the Tornado strikes upon Iraqi air fields is difficult to determine.

In an emergency deployment, the UK sent out a detachment of Blackburn Buccaneer aircraft equipped with the Pave Spike laser designator, allowing Tornado GR1s to drop precision guided weapons. A further crash programme in support of the sudden military action saw multiple GR1s outfitted with the TIALD laser designation system; author Claus-Christian Szejnmann declared that the TIALD pod enabled the GR1 to "achieve probably the most accurate bombing in the RAF's history". Although laser designation proved effective in the Gulf War, only 23 TIALD pods were purchased by 2000; shortages negatively impacted combat operations over Kosovo.
Following the initial phase of the war, the GR1s switched to medium level strike missions, typical targets for these strikes included munition depots and oil refining facilities. Only the reconnaissance Tornado GR1As continued to operate at the low-altitude high-speed profile throughout the war, the GR1A emerged unscathed despite the inherent danger posed by missions such as conducting pre-attack reconnaissance. In the war's aftermath, Britain maintained a military presence in the Gulf for many years, around half a dozen GR1s were based at Ali Al Salem airbase in Kuwait for operations over the southern no fly zone as part of Operation Southern Watch; another half a dozen GR1s participated in missions over Northern Iraq in Operation Provide Comfort.

In March 1993, a Mid-Life Upgrade (MLU) project of the Tornado was launched to upgrade the GR1/GR1A to GR4/GR4A standard. The Tornado GR4 made its operational debut in Operation Southern Watch; patrolling Iraq's southern airspace from bases in Kuwait. Both Tornado GR1s and GR4s based at Ali Al Salem, Kuwait, took part in coalition strikes at Iraq's military infrastructure during Operation Desert Fox in 1998. In December 1998, an Iraqi anti-aircraft battery fired six to eight missiles at a patrolling Tornado, the battery was later attacked in retaliation, no aircraft were lost during the incident. It was reported that during Desert Fox RAF Tornados had successfully destroyed 75% of allotted targets, and out of the 36 missions planned, 28 had been successfully completed.
The GR1 participated in the Kosovo War in 1999. The Tornados initially operated from RAF Brüggen, Germany; they later moved to Solenzara Air Base, Corsica. Experience from fighting in Kosovo led to the RAF procuring AGM-65 Maverick missiles and Enhanced Paveway smart bombs for the Tornado fleet. Following the Kosovo War, the GR1 was phased out as more aircraft were upgraded to GR4 standard. The final GR1 was upgraded and returned to the RAF on 10 June 2003.
The GR4 was heavily used in Operation Telic, the British contribution to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. RAF Tornados flew in the opening phase of the war, flying alongside American strike aircraft to rapidly attack key installations. Following an emphasis on minimising casualties, Tornados of No. 617 Squadron deployed the new Storm Shadow precision cruise missile for the first time in the Iraq conflict; while 25% of the UK's air-launched weapons in Kosovo were precision-guided, four years later in Iraq this ratio increased to 85%.

On 23 March 2003, a Tornado GR4 was shot down over Iraq by friendly fire from a U.S. Patriot missile battery, killing both crew members. In July 2003, a US board of inquiry exonerated the battery's operators, observing the Tornado's "lack of functioning IFF (Identification Friend or Foe)" as a factor in the incident. Problems with Patriot were also suggested as a factor, multiple incidents of mis-identification of friendly aircraft have occurred, including the fatal shootdown of a US Navy McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet a few weeks after the loss of the Tornado. Britain withdrew the last of its Tornados from Iraq in June 2009.
In early 2009, several GR4s arrived at Kandahar airfield, Afghanistan, to replace the Harrier GR7/9 aircraft deployed there since November 2004. In 2009, Paveway IV guided bombs were brought into service on the RAF's Tornados, having been previously used in Afghanistan by the Harrier II fleet. In Summer 2010, extra Tornados were dispatched to Kandahar for the duration of the 2010 Afghan election.
Prior to the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR)'s publication, the retirement of the entire Tornado fleet was under consideration, savings of £7.5 billion were anticipated. The SDSR announced the Tornado would be retained at the expense of the Harrier II, although Tornado numbers are to decline in transition to the Eurofighter Typhoon, and later on, the F-35 Lightning II.
On 18 March 2011, British Prime Minister David Cameron announced the deployment of Tornados and Typhoons to enforce a no-fly zone in Libya. In March 2011, several Tornados flew 3,000-mile (4,800 km) strike missions against targets inside Libya in what were, according to Defence Secretary Liam Fox, "the longest range bombing mission conducted by the RAF since the Falklands conflict". A variety of weapons were used in operations over Libya, including Laser-guided bombs and Brimstone missiles.

For its use in the 1991 Gulf War, the British Tornados were given a special "Desert Pink" paint. This 15.Squdr. machine got his nickname "MiG Eater" after it shot down a starting Iraqi MiG.

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Freitag, 23. Mai 2014

Lockheed F-19 stealth fighter (fictional) - Revell 1/144

F-19 is a designation for a hypothetical United States fighter aircraft that has never been officially acknowledged, and has engendered much speculation that it might refer to a type of aircraft whose existence is still classified.



Since the unification of the numbering system in 1962, U.S. fighters have been designated by consecutive numbers, beginning with the F-1 Fury. F-13 was never assigned to a fighter due to superstition, though the designation had previously been used for a reconnaissance version of the B-29. After the F/A-18 Hornet, the next announced aircraft was the F-20 Tigershark. The USAF proposed the F-19 designation for the fighter, but Northrop requested the "F-20" instead. The USAF finally approved the F-20 designation in 1982.  There have been a number of theories put forth to explain this omission, but none have ever been confirmed.
The most prevalent theory in the 1980s was that "F-19" was the designation of the stealth fighter whose development was an open secret in the aerospace community. When the actual aircraft was publicly revealed in 1988, it was called the F-117 Nighthawk. There seems to be no evidence that "F-19" was ever used to designate the Nighthawk, although the National Museum of the United States Air Force website does include the entry "Lockheed F-19 CSIRS (see F-117)" as of 2011. Another theory suggests that F-19 was the designation applied to the Have Blue technology demonstrator which led to the development of the F-117.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia