Sonntag, 2. November 2014

Space Shuttle Endeavour - Revell 1/72

The Space Shuttle is a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft that was operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Its official program name was Space Transportation System, taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. They were used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST); conducted science experiments in orbit; and participated in construction and servicing of the International Space Station. The Shuttle fleet totaled 1322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds during missions.
Shuttle components included the Orbiter Vehicle (OV), a pair of recoverable solid rocket boosters (SRBs), and the expendable external tank (ET) containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The Shuttle was launched vertically, like a conventional rocket, with the two SRBs operating in parallel with the OV's three main engines, which were fueled from the ET. The SRBs were jettisoned before the vehicle reached orbit, and the ET was jettisoned just before orbit insertion, which used the orbiter's two Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engines. At the conclusion of the mission, the orbiter fired its OMS to de-orbit and re-enter the atmosphere. The orbiter glided to a runway landing on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base in California or at the Shuttle Landing Facility at the KSC. After the landings at Edwards, the orbiter was flown back to KSC on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a specially modified Boeing 747.
The first orbiter, Enterprise, was built purely for Approach and Landing Tests and had no orbital capability. Four fully operational orbiters were initially built: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, and Atlantis. Of these, Challenger and Columbia were destroyed in mission accidents in 1986 and 2003 respectively, in which a total of fourteen astronauts were killed. A fifth operational orbiter, Endeavour, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger. The Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of Atlantis '​s final flight on July 21, 2011.

 The formal design of what became the Space Shuttle began with the "Phase A" contract design studies issued in the late 1960s. Conceptualization had begun two decades earlier, before the Apollo program of the 1960s. One of the places the concept of a spacecraft returning from space to a horizontal landing originated was within NACA, in 1954, in the form of an aeronautics research experiment later named the X-15. The NACA proposal was submitted by Walter Dornberger.
In 1958, the X-15 concept further developed into proposal to launch an X-15 into space, and another X-series spaceplane proposal, named X-20 Dyna-Soar, as well as variety of aerospace plane concepts and studies. Neil Armstrong was selected to pilot both the X-15 and the X-20. Though the X-20 was not built, another spaceplane similar to the X-20 was built several years later and delivered to NASA in January 1966 called the HL-10 ("HL" indicated "horizontal landing").
In the mid-1960s, the US Air Force conducted classified studies on next-generation space transportation systems and concluded that semi-reusable designs were the cheapest choice. It proposed a development program with an immediate start on a "Class I" vehicle with expendable boosters, followed by slower development of a "Class II" semi-reusable design and possible "Class III" fully reusable design later. In 1967, George Mueller held a one-day symposium at NASA headquarters to study the options. Eighty people attended and presented a wide variety of designs, including earlier US Air Force designs such as the X-20 Dyna-Soar.
In 1968, NASA officially began work on what was then known as the Integrated Launch and Re-entry Vehicle (ILRV). At the same time, NASA held a separate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) competition. NASA offices in Houston and Huntsville jointly issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) for ILRV studies to design a spacecraft that could deliver a payload to orbit but also re-enter the atmosphere and fly back to Earth. For example, one of the responses was for a two-stage design, featuring a large booster and a small orbiter, called the DC-3, one of several Phase A Shuttle designs. After the aforementioned "Phase A" studies, B, C, and D phases progressively evaluated in-depth designs up to 1972. In the final design, the bottom stage was recoverable solid rocket boosters, and the top stage used an expendable external tank.
In 1969, President Richard Nixon decided to support proceeding with Space Shuttle development. A series of development programs and analysis refined the basic design, prior to full development and testing. In August 1973, the X-24B proved that an unpowered spaceplane could re-enter Earth's atmosphere for a horizontal landing.
Across the Atlantic, European ministers met in Belgium in 1973 to authorize Western Europe's manned orbital project and its main contribution to Space Shuttle—the Spacelab program. Spacelab would provide a multidisciplinary orbital space laboratory and additional space equipment for the Shuttle.

 A major component of the Space Shuttle Program was Spacelab, primarily contributed by a consortium of European countries, and operated in conjunction with the United States and international partners. Supported by a modular system of pressurized modules, pallets, and systems, Spacelab missions executed on multidisciplinary science, orbital logistics, and international cooperation. Over 29 missions flew on subjects ranging from astronomy, microgravity, radar, and life sciences, to name a few. Spacelab hardware also supported missions such as Hubble (HST) servicing and space station resupply. STS-2 and STS-3 provided testing, and the first full mission was Spacelab-1 (STS-9) launched on November 28, 1983.
Spacelab formally began in 1973, after a meeting in Brussels, Belgium, by European heads of state.Within the decade, Spacelab went into orbit and provided Europe and the United States with an orbital workshop and hardware system. International cooperation, science, and exploration were realized on Spacelab.

The Model - assembly and changes

This aged REVELL-kit is not really the best one and is afflicted with many failures. I started to paint the undercarriage-flaps and to find figures I could use as astronauts. Each tile of  the flaps is painted with its lettering using a writing-feather and thinned white colour.

The same work I did with the big underwings after I sprayed black and many shades of grey. Several tiles had some different colour. Many cups of coffee I used during lettering all tiles.

Also the fuselage is worked out at the same way. Each marking is painted by hand.
The rocket-panel in the rear fuselage is absent in the kit, so it is needed to paint it by hand.

Look at the windowframes and the nose detailling.
The back of the Space Shuttle needed a lot of  painting and detailling. The wheels has been much easier.
So many original-fotos has been sighted to built the backside in the right way.
The upper side of the wings - with handpainted NASA-emblem. Only the USA-flag is a decal.

The rocket nozzles needed to be reworked immediatly.

 The backside of the cockpitsection is covered with toiletpaper and additional handholds made of wire.

Also the transportbay is covered with toiletpaper. To paint all the little dots needed a lot of time.
On the sides of the bay I added many details.

The bay is fitting in its place - without cement at this moment. The robotboom is appended.

The Spacelab in its position. Looks good I think. This Spacelab is made as a papermodel, covered with cellulose and wire-handholds. The cap of the entry is covered with aluminiumfoil.

Here is the crawl tube made of paper, covered with cellulose and wire-handholds. Surprising me it sits perfect in its position.
In the cockpit roof the selfmade Foto-instruments are fitted. Between the two windows the neonlamp is mounted, made of clear plastic.

The cockpit itself with the Foto-instruments and the new floorparts.

The backside of the cockpit - detailled with a few scratchparts.
The middlefloor is a selfmade papermodel. The seats are from the kit, detailled with seatbelts made of paper and wire chair legs. The ladders are photoetched parts from shipmodelling. The aerating tube is rolled toilet paper wrapped with blue painted wire.

The spacesuit is made of cellulose.

Now the safetypacks are mounted in the cockpit roof.

Here you can see what is visible through the windows . . .
. . . and through the doorwindow. ( Sorry - extremely zoomed )

The bay doors are finished.

The metal plates inside the baydoors are made of cromecoloured fotopaper, carved with a knife. The kitparts of this metal plates has been too thick so I did not use them.
Now the wings are mounted and the rocketcovers are painted with different shades of white.
The lettering is made of ink painted with a feather. The partlines are drawn with pencil.

The fuselage is fitted together. I wished to display the cockpit opened so the edges are painted red.
A scratchbuild pallet is fitted between the Spacelab and the rear baywall.

The complete underside of the Endeavour showing the many many lettered tiles. Now the landing gear can be mounted.

The brakelines are made of different wires.

Fitting the baydoors.

The kit includes an astronaut I detailled with many scratchparts.

Handholds and wires are added to the edge between fuselage and baydoors.

Finished. This are the final fotos of my giant project.
Aaaaaargh ! The nose is not primed yet and its ugly ! But my time to finish the model and bring it to the museum has been too short . . . sniff.

Here the little antenna behind the cockpit - scratchbuilt - is visible.

Upper right the opened model of the Spacelab can be seen.

Now the Space Shuttle is the STAR of the exhibition of the planes collection in 1:72. The Spacelab is in opened condition and as partition next to Endeavour.

Assembling the Spacelab as selfconstructed papermodel.

The finished Spacelab-tube.

Thanks for watching. I wish you a nice day and a fine night. Hope you come back again.

1 Kommentar:

  1. Excellent work. Much detail and dedication. I'm a fan of this excellent machine that is the shuttle. Greetings.

    PS .: I leave a review of my work.