The Curtiss P-36 Hawk, also known as the Curtiss Hawk Model 75, was an American-designed and built fighter aircraft of the 1930s and 40s. A contemporary of both the Hawker Hurricane and Messerschmitt Bf 109, it was one of the first of a new generation of combat aircraft—a sleek monoplane design making extensive use of metal in its construction and powered by a powerful radial engine.
Perhaps best known as the predecessor of the Curtiss P-40 Warhawk, the P-36 saw little combat with the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. It was nevertheless the fighter used most extensively and successfully by the French Armee de l'air during the Battle of France.
The P-36 was also ordered by the governments of the Netherlands and
Norway, but did not arrive in time to see action over either country,
before both were occupied by Nazi Germany. The type was also
manufactured under license in China, for the Republic of China Air Force, as well as in British India, for the Royal Air Force (RAF) and Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF).
Axis and co-belligerent
air forces also made significant use of captured P-36s. Following the
fall of France and Norway in 1940, several dozen P-36s were seized by
Germany and transferred to Finland; these aircraft saw extensive action
with the Ilmavoimat (Air Force) against the Soviet Air Forces. The P-36 was also used by Vichy French air forces in several minor conflicts; in one of these, the Franco-Thai War of 1940–41, P-36s were used by both sides.
From mid-1940, some P-36s en route for France and the Netherlands
were diverted to Allied air forces in other parts of the world. The
Hawks ordered by the Netherlands were diverted to the Dutch East Indies and later saw action against Japanese forces. French orders were taken up by British Commonwealth air forces, and saw combat with both the South African Air Force
(SAAF) against Italian forces in East Africa, and with the RAF over
Burma. Within the Commonwealth, the type was usually referred to as the Curtiss Mohawk.
With around 1,000 aircraft built by Curtiss itself, the P-36 was a
major commercial success for the company. It also became the basis not
only of the P-40, but two other, unsuccessful prototypes: the YP-37 and the XP-42.
the beginning of the WWII, Iran remained a neutral
country. However, in August 23, 1941 (3 Shahrivar,
1320), during the heat of the WWII Iranian neutrality
was broken, and Iran was attacked from the air and
the sea. British from the South, and the Russians
from the North.
( was Called Operation "Y"
under the command of Lt. Gen. E.P.Quinan).
The young Iranian Air Force, which had just begun
to build its foundation, was in no condition to withstand
such a heavy attack. The Allied Forces of Britain
and Russia took control of two Iranian air bases in
The British took over Dooshan Tappeh IIAF complex
including Shahbaz factories and the Russians took
over control of Ghale Morghi Air Base.
The invaders closed the IIAF Technical Officers Academy,
the pilot training school, the maintenance school,
and six air bases in the country. Personnel were dismissed
from service and most of the aircraft were dismantled
( Some Air Force personnel witnessed that our Aircrafts
were cut into half by British troops to make them
From 15 Curtiss H75 A-9 Hawk Aircrafts that Iran had
purchased from USA and they were delivered on May
1941, 10 were ready to fly (SN 15252 to 15261 and
other 5 were still in boxes). The British also took
all these Aircraft and shipped them to India!!!
The young Air Force was reduced to practically nothing!
Iranian Air Force that had been built by H.I.M. Reza
Shah The Great had been all but destroyed by the British
and Russian forces during their occupation from 1941
to 1946. Reza Shah, the founder of the Air Force was
forced to resign, as part of the cease-fire condition
imposed by the British. Eventually, his son, Mohammad
Reza Pahlavi became the Shah of Iran.
When the war ended the British left Iran, but the
Russians refused to leave and remained in control
of Northern Iran.
In 1946 (21 Azar, 1325), encouraged by the political
pressure applied by American Government, the Army
and Air Force, under the direct command of the young
Mohammad Reza Shah (Only
40 Days After receiving his Pilot Certificate, and
having less than 100 flying hours, Shah of Iran made
four Reconnaissance Flight over enemy territory, this
was the first time that the leader of a country would
actually participate and fly over war zone.)
drove the Red Russians and the "puppet"
government of "Pishehwari" out of Iran.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia & History of the Imperial Iranian
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